Basic Routing

The most basic Laravel routes simply accept a URI and a Closure, providing a very simple and expressive method of defining routes:

Route::get('foo', function () {
    return 'Hello World';

The Default Route Files

All Laravel routes are defined in your route files, which are located in the routes directory. These files are automatically loaded by the framework. The routes/web.php file defines routes that are for your web interface. These routes are assigned the web middleware group, which provides features like session state and CSRF protection. The routes in routes/api.php are stateless and are assigned the api middleware group.

For most applications, you will begin by defining routes in your routes/web.php file.

Available Router Methods

The router allows you to register routes that respond to any HTTP verb:

Route::get($uri, $callback);
Route::post($uri, $callback);
Route::put($uri, $callback);
Route::patch($uri, $callback);
Route::delete($uri, $callback);
Route::options($uri, $callback);

Sometimes you may need to register a route that responds to multiple HTTP verbs. You may do so using the match method. Or, you may even register a route that responds to all HTTP verbs using the any method:

Route::match(['get', 'post'], '/', function () {

Route::any('foo', function () {

CSRF Protection

Any HTML forms pointing to POST, PUT, or DELETE routes that are defined in the web routes file should include a CSRF token field. Otherwise, the request will be rejected. You can read more about CSRF protection in the CSRF documentation:

<form method="POST" action="/profile">
    {{ csrf_field() }}

Route Parameters

Required Parameters

Of course, sometimes you will need to capture segments of the URI within your route. For example, you may need to capture a user's ID from the URL. You may do so by defining route parameters:

Route::get('user/{id}', function ($id) {
    return 'User '.$id;

You may define as many route parameters as required by your route:

Route::get('posts/{post}/comments/{comment}', function ($postId, $commentId) {

Route parameters are always encased within {} braces and should consist of alphabetic characters. Route parameters may not contain a - character. Use an underscore (_) instead.

Optional Parameters

Occasionally you may need to specify a route parameter, but make the presence of that route parameter optional. You may do so by placing a ? mark after the parameter name. Make sure to give the route's corresponding variable a default value:

Route::get('user/{name?}', function ($name = null) {
    return $name;

Route::get('user/{name?}', function ($name = 'John') {
    return $name;

Named Routes

Named routes allow the convenient generation of URLs or redirects for specific routes. You may specify a name for a route by chaining the name method onto the route definition:

Route::get('user/profile', function () {

You may also specify route names for controller actions:

Route::get('user/profile', [email protected]')->name('profile');

Generating URLs To Named Routes

Once you have assigned a name to a given route, you may use the route's name when generating URLs or redirects via the global route function:

// Generating URLs...
$url = route('profile');

// Generating Redirects...
return redirect()->route('profile');

If the named route defines parameters, you may pass the parameters as the second argument to the route function. The given parameters will automatically be inserted into the URL in their correct positions:

Route::get('user/{id}/profile', function ($id) {

$url = route('profile', ['id' => 1]);

Route Groups

Route groups allow you to share route attributes, such as middleware or namespaces, across a large number of routes without needing to define those attributes on each individual route. Shared attributes are specified in an array format as the first parameter to the Route::group method.


To assign middleware to all routes within a group, you may use the middleware key in the group attribute array. Middleware are executed in the order they are listed in the array:

Route::group(['middleware' => 'auth'], function () {
    Route::get('/', function ()    {
        // Uses Auth Middleware

    Route::get('user/profile', function () {
        // Uses Auth Middleware


Another common use-case for route groups is assigning the same PHP namespace to a group of controllers using the namespace parameter in the group array:

Route::group(['namespace' => 'Admin'], function() {
    // Controllers Within The "App\Http\Controllers\Admin" Namespace

Remember, by default, the RouteServiceProvider includes your route files within a namespace group, allowing you to register controller routes without specifying the full App\Http\Controllers namespace prefix. So, you only need to specify the portion of the namespace that comes after the base App\Http\Controllers namespace.

Sub-Domain Routing

Route groups may also be used to handle sub-domain routing. Sub-domains may be assigned route parameters just like route URIs, allowing you to capture a portion of the sub-domain for usage in your route or controller. The sub-domain may be specified using the domain key on the group attribute array:

Route::group(['domain' => '{account}'], function () {
    Route::get('user/{id}', function ($account, $id) {

Route Prefixes

The prefix group attribute may be used to prefix each route in the group with a given URI. For example, you may want to prefix all route URIs within the group with admin:

Route::group(['prefix' => 'admin'], function () {
    Route::get('users', function ()    {
        // Matches The "/admin/users" URL

Route Model Binding

When injecting a model ID to a route or controller action, you will often query to retrieve the model that corresponds to that ID. Laravel route model binding provides a convenient way to automatically inject the model instances directly into your routes. For example, instead of injecting a user's ID, you can inject the entire User model instance that matches the given ID.

Implicit Binding

Laravel automatically resolves Eloquent models defined in routes or controller actions whose variable names match a route segment name. For example:

Route::get('api/users/{user}', function (App\User $user) {
    return $user->email;

In this example, since the Eloquent $user variable defined on the route matches the {user} segment in the route's URI, Laravel will automatically inject the model instance that has an ID matching the corresponding value from the request URI. If a matching model instance is not found in the database, a 404 HTTP response will automatically be generated.

Customizing The Key Name

If you would like model binding to use a database column other than id when retrieving a given model class, you may override the getRouteKeyName method on the Eloquent model:

 * Get the route key for the model.
 * @return string
public function getRouteKeyName()
    return 'slug';

Explicit Binding

To register an explicit binding, use the router's model method to specify the class for a given parameter. You should define your explicit model bindings in the boot method of the RouteServiceProvider class:

public function boot()

    Route::model('user', App\User::class);

Next, define a route that contains a {user} parameter:

$router->get('profile/{user}', function(App\User $user) {

Since we have bound all {user} parameters to the App\User model, a User instance will be injected into the route. So, for example, a request to profile/1 will inject the User instance from the database which has an ID of 1.

If a matching model instance is not found in the database, a 404 HTTP response will be automatically generated.

Customizing The Resolution Logic

If you wish to use your own resolution logic, you may use the Route::bind method. The Closure you pass to the bind method will receive the value of the URI segment and should return the instance of the class that should be injected into the route:

$router->bind('user', function ($value) {
    return App\User::where('name', $value)->first();

Form Method Spoofing

HTML forms do not support PUT, PATCH or DELETE actions. So, when defining PUT, PATCH or DELETE routes that are called from an HTML form, you will need to add a hidden _method field to the form. The value sent with the _method field will be used as the HTTP request method:

<form action="/foo/bar" method="POST">
    <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
    <input type="hidden" name="_token" value="{{ csrf_token() }}">

You may use the method_field helper to generate the _method input:

{{ method_field('PUT') }}

Accessing The Current Route

You may use the current, currentRouteName, and currentRouteAction methods on the Route facade to access information about the route handling the incoming request:

$route = Route::current();

$name = Route::currentRouteName();

$action = Route::currentRouteAction();

Refer to the API documentation for both the underlying class of the Route facade and Route instance to review all accessible methods.