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Upgrade Guide

Upgrading To 5.5.0 From 5.4

Estimated Upgrade Time: 1 Hour

{note} We attempt to document every possible breaking change. Since some of these breaking changes are in obscure parts of the framework only a portion of these changes may actually affect your application.


Laravel 5.5 requires PHP 7.0.0 or higher.

Updating Dependencies

Update your laravel/framework dependency to 5.5.* in your composer.json file. In addition, you should update your phpunit/phpunit dependency to ~6.0. Next, add the filp/whoops package with version ~2.0 to the require-dev section of your composer.json file. Finally, in the scripts section of your composer.json file, add the package:discover command to the post-autoload-dump event:

"scripts": {
    "post-autoload-dump": [
        "@php artisan package:discover"

Of course, don't forget to examine any 3rd party packages consumed by your application and verify you are using the proper version for Laravel 5.5 support.

Laravel Installer

{tip} If you commonly use the Laravel installer via laravel new, you should update your Laravel installer package using the composer global update command.

Laravel Dusk

Laravel Dusk 2.0.0 has been released to provide compatibility with Laravel 5.5 and headless Chrome testing.


The Pusher event broadcasting driver now requires version ~3.0 of the Pusher SDK.

Swift Mailer

Laravel 5.5 requires version ~6.0 of Swift Mailer.


Auto-Loading Commands

In Laravel 5.5, Artisan can automatically discover commands so that you do not have to manually register them in your kernel. To take advantage of this new feature, you should add the following line to the commands method of your App\Console\Kernel class:


The fire Method

Any fire methods present on your Artisan commands should be renamed to handle.

The optimize Command

With recent improvements to PHP op-code caching, the optimize Artisan command is no longer needed. You should remove any references to this command from your deployment scripts as it will be removed in a future release of Laravel.


The authorizeResource Controller Method

When passing a multi-word model name to the authorizeResource method, the resulting route segment will now be "snake" case, matching the behavior of resource controllers.

The before Policy Method

The before method of a policy class will not be called if the class doesn't contain a method matching the name of the ability being checked.


Database Driver

If you are using the database cache driver, you should run php artisan cache:clear when deploying your upgraded Laravel 5.5 application for the first time.


The belongsToMany Method

If you are overriding the belongsToMany method on your Eloquent model, you should update your method signature to reflect the addition of new arguments:

 * Define a many-to-many relationship.
 * @param  string  $related
 * @param  string  $table
 * @param  string  $foreignPivotKey
 * @param  string  $relatedPivotKey
 * @param  string  $parentKey
 * @param  string  $relatedKey
 * @param  string  $relation
 * @return \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\BelongsToMany
public function belongsToMany($related, $table = null, $foreignPivotKey = null,
                              $relatedPivotKey = null, $parentKey = null,
                              $relatedKey = null, $relation = null)

BelongsToMany getQualifiedRelatedKeyName

The getQualifiedRelatedKeyName method has been renamed to getQualifiedRelatedPivotKeyName.

BelongsToMany getQualifiedForeignKeyName

The getQualifiedForeignKeyName method has been renamed to getQualifiedForeignPivotKeyName.

Model is Method

If you are overriding the is method of your Eloquent model, you should remove the Model type-hint from the method. This allows the is method to receive null as an argument:

 * Determine if two models have the same ID and belong to the same table.
 * @param  \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model|null  $model
 * @return bool
public function is($model)

Model $events Property

The $events property on your models should be renamed to $dispatchesEvents. This change was made because of a high number of users needing to define an events relationship, which caused a conflict with the old property name.

Pivot $parent Property

The protected $parent property on the Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Relations\Pivot class has been renamed to $pivotParent.

Relationship create Methods

The BelongsToMany, HasOneOrMany, and MorphOneOrMany classes' create methods have been modified to provide a default value for the $attributes argument. If you are overriding these methods, you should update your signatures to match the new definition:

public function create(array $attributes = [])

Soft Deleted Models

When deleting a "soft deleted" model, the exists property on the model will remain true.

withCount Column Formatting

When using an alias, the withCount method will no longer automatically append _count onto the resulting column name. For example, in Laravel 5.4, the following query would result in a bar_count column being added to the query:

$users = User::withCount('foo as bar')->get();

However, in Laravel 5.5, the alias will be used exactly as it is given. If you would like to append _count to the resulting column, you must specify that suffix when defining the alias:

$users = User::withCount('foo as bar_count')->get();

Model Methods & Attribute Names

To prevent accessing a model's private properties when using array access, it's no longer possible to have a model method with the same name as an attribute or property. Doing so will cause exceptions to be thrown when accessing the model's attributes via array access ($user['name']) or the data_get helper function.

Exception Format

In Laravel 5.5, all exceptions, including validation exceptions, are converted into HTTP responses by the exception handler. In addition, the default format for JSON validation errors has changed. The new format conforms to the following convention:

    "message": "The given data was invalid.",
    "errors": {
        "field-1": [
            "Error 1",
            "Error 2"
        "field-2": [
            "Error 1",
            "Error 2"

However, if you would like to maintain the Laravel 5.4 JSON error format, you may add the following method to your App\Exceptions\Handler class:

use Illuminate\Validation\ValidationException;

 * Convert a validation exception into a JSON response.
 * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
 * @param  \Illuminate\Validation\ValidationException  $exception
 * @return \Illuminate\Http\JsonResponse
protected function invalidJson($request, ValidationException $exception)
    return response()->json($exception->errors(), $exception->status);

JSON Authentication Attempts

This change also affects the validation error formatting for authentication attempts made over JSON. In Laravel 5.5, JSON authentication failures will return the error messages following the new formatting convention described above.

A Note On Form Requests

If you were customizing the response format of an individual form request, you should now override the failedValidation method of that form request, and throw an HttpResponseException instance containing your custom response:

use Illuminate\Http\Exceptions\HttpResponseException;

 * Handle a failed validation attempt.
 * @param  \Illuminate\Contracts\Validation\Validator  $validator
 * @return void
 * @throws \Illuminate\Validation\ValidationException
protected function failedValidation(Validator $validator)
    throw new HttpResponseException(response()->json(..., 422));


The files Method

The files method of the Illuminate\Filesystem\Filesystem class has changed its signature to add the $hidden argument and now returns an array of SplFileInfo objects, similar to the allFiles method. Previously, the files method returned an array of string path names. The new signature is as follows:

public function files($directory, $hidden = false)


Unused Parameters

The unused $data and $callback arguments were removed from the Illuminate\Contracts\Mail\MailQueue contract's queue and later methods:

 * Queue a new e-mail message for sending.
 * @param  string|array|MailableContract  $view
 * @param  string  $queue
 * @return mixed
public function queue($view, $queue = null);

 * Queue a new e-mail message for sending after (n) seconds.
 * @param  \DateTimeInterface|\DateInterval|int  $delay
 * @param  string|array|MailableContract  $view
 * @param  string  $queue
 * @return mixed
public function later($delay, $view, $queue = null);


The dispatch Helper

If you would like to dispatch a job that runs immediately and returns a value from the handle method, you should use the dispatch_now or Bus::dispatchNow method to dispatch the job:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Bus;

$value = dispatch_now(new Job);

$value = Bus::dispatchNow(new Job);


The all Method

If you are overriding the all method of the Illuminate\Http\Request class, you should update your method signature to reflect the new $keys argument:

 * Get all of the input and files for the request.
 * @param  array|mixed  $keys
 * @return array
public function all($keys = null)

The has Method

The $request->has method will now return true even if the input value is an empty string or null. A new $request->filled method has been added that provides the previous behavior of the has method.

The intersect Method

The intersect method has been removed. You may replicate this behavior using array_filter on a call to $request->only:

return array_filter($request->only('foo'));

The only Method

The only method will now only return attributes that are actually present in the request payload. If you would like to preserve the old behavior of the only method, you may use the all method instead.

return $request->all('foo');

The request() Helper

The request helper will no longer retrieve nested keys. If needed, you may use the input method of the request to achieve this behavior:

return request()->input('');


Authentication Assertions

Some authentication assertions were renamed for better consistency with the rest of the framework's assertions:

  • seeIsAuthenticated was renamed to assertAuthenticated.
  • dontSeeIsAuthenticated was renamed to assertGuest.
  • seeIsAuthenticatedAs was renamed to assertAuthenticatedAs.
  • seeCredentials was renamed to assertCredentials.
  • dontSeeCredentials was renamed to assertInvalidCredentials.

Mail Fake

If you are using the Mail fake to determine if a mailable was queued during a request, you should now use Mail::assertQueued instead of Mail::assertSent. This distinction allows you to specifically assert that the mail was queued for background sending and not sent during the request itself.


Laravel Tinker now supports omitting namespaces when referring to your application classes. This feature requires an optimized Composer class-map, so you should add the optimize-autoloader directive to the config section of your composer.json file:

"config": {
    "optimize-autoloader": true


The LoaderInterface

The Illuminate\Translation\LoaderInterface interface has been moved to Illuminate\Contracts\Translation\Loader.


Validator Methods

All of the validator's validation methods are now public instead of protected.


Dynamic "With" Variable Names

When allowing the dynamic __call method to share variables with a view, these variables will automatically use "camel" case. For example, given the following:

return view('pool')->withMaximumVotes(100);

The maximumVotes variable may be accessed in the template like so:

{{ $maximumVotes }}

@php Blade Directive

The @php blade directive no longer accepts inline tags. Instead, use the full form of the directive:

    $teamMember = true;


We also encourage you to view the changes in the laravel/laravel GitHub repository. While many of these changes are not required, you may wish to keep these files in sync with your application. Some of these changes will be covered in this upgrade guide, but others, such as changes to configuration files or comments, will not be. You can easily view the changes with the GitHub comparison tool and choose which updates are important to you.