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Upgrade Guide

High Impact Changes

Medium Impact Changes

Upgrading To 9.0 From 8.x

Estimated Upgrade Time: 30 Minutes


We attempt to document every possible breaking change. Since some of these breaking changes are in obscure parts of the framework only a portion of these changes may actually affect your application. Want to save time? You can use Laravel Shift to help automate your application upgrades.

Updating Dependencies

Likelihood Of Impact: High

PHP 8.0.2 Required

Laravel now requires PHP 8.0.2 or greater.

Composer Dependencies

You should update the following dependencies in your application's composer.json file:

  • laravel/framework to ^9.0
  • nunomaduro/collision to ^6.1

In addition, please replace facade/ignition with "spatie/laravel-ignition": "^1.0" and pusher/pusher-php-server (if applicable) with "pusher/pusher-php-server": "^5.0" in your application's composer.json file.

Furthermore, the following first-party packages have received new major releases to support Laravel 9.x. If applicable, you should read their individual upgrade guides before upgrading:

Finally, examine any other third-party packages consumed by your application and verify you are using the proper version for Laravel 9 support.

PHP Return Types

PHP is beginning to transition to requiring return type definitions on PHP methods such as offsetGet, offsetSet, etc. In light of this, Laravel 9 has implemented these return types in its code base. Typically, this should not affect user written code; however, if you are overriding one of these methods by extending Laravel's core classes, you will need to add these return types to your own application or package code:

  • count(): int
  • getIterator(): Traversable
  • getSize(): int
  • jsonSerialize(): array
  • offsetExists($key): bool
  • offsetGet($key): mixed
  • offsetSet($key, $value): void
  • offsetUnset($key): void

In addition, return types were added to methods implementing PHP's SessionHandlerInterface. Again, it is unlikely that this change affects your own application or package code:

  • open($savePath, $sessionName): bool
  • close(): bool
  • read($sessionId): string|false
  • write($sessionId, $data): bool
  • destroy($sessionId): bool
  • gc($lifetime): int


The Application Contract

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The storagePath method of the Illuminate\Contracts\Foundation\Application interface has been updated to accept a $path argument. If you are implementing this interface you should update your implementation accordingly:

public function storagePath($path = '');

Similarly, the langPath method of the Illuminate\Foundation\Application class has been updated to accept a $path argument:

public function langPath($path = '');

Exception Handler ignore Method

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The exception handler's ignore method is now public instead of protected. This method is not included in the default application skeleton; however, if you have manually defined this method you should update its visibility to public:

public function ignore(string $class);

Exception Handler Contract Binding

Likelihood Of Impact: Very Low

Previously, in order to override the default Laravel exception handler, custom implementations were bound into the service container using the \App\Exceptions\Handler::class type. However, you should now bind custom implementations using the \Illuminate\Contracts\Debug\ExceptionHandler::class type.


Lazy Collections & The $loop Variable

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

When iterating over a LazyCollection instance within a Blade template, the $loop variable is no longer available, as accessing this variable causes the entire LazyCollection to be loaded into memory, thus rendering the usage of lazy collections pointless in this scenario.

Checked / Disabled / Selected Blade Directives

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The new @checked, @disabled, and @selected Blade directives may conflict with Vue events of the same name. You may use @@ to escape the directives and avoid this conflict: @@selected.


The Enumerable Contract

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The Illuminate\Support\Enumerable contract now defines a sole method. If you are manually implementing this interface, you should update your implementation to reflect this new method:

public function sole($key = null, $operator = null, $value = null);

The reduceWithKeys Method

The reduceWithKeys method has been removed as the reduce method provides the same functionality. You may simply update your code to call reduce instead of reduceWithKeys.

The reduceMany Method

The reduceMany method has been renamed to reduceSpread for naming consistency with other similar methods.


The Container Contract

Likelihood Of Impact: Very Low

The Illuminate\Contracts\Container\Container contract has received two method definitions: scoped and scopedIf. If you are manually implementing this contract, you should update your implementation to reflect these new methods.

The ContextualBindingBuilder Contract

Likelihood Of Impact: Very Low

The Illuminate\Contracts\Container\ContextualBindingBuilder contract now defines a giveConfig method. If you are manually implementing this interface, you should update your implementation to reflect this new method:

public function giveConfig($key, $default = null);


Postgres "Schema" Configuration

Likelihood Of Impact: Medium

The schema configuration option used to configure Postgres connection search paths in your application's config/database.php configuration file should be renamed to search_path.

Schema Builder registerCustomDoctrineType Method

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The registerCustomDoctrineType method has been removed from the Illuminate\Database\Schema\Builder class. You may use the registerDoctrineType method on the DB facade instead, or register custom Doctrine types in the config/database.php configuration file.


Custom Casts & null

Likelihood Of Impact: Medium

In previous releases of Laravel, the set method of custom cast classes was not invoked if the cast attribute was being set to null. However, this behavior was inconsistent with the Laravel documentation. In Laravel 9.x, the set method of the cast class will be invoked with null as the provided $value argument. Therefore, you should ensure your custom casts are able to sufficiently handle this scenario:

* Prepare the given value for storage.
* @param \Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model $model
* @param string $key
* @param AddressModel $value
* @param array $attributes
* @return array
public function set($model, $key, $value, $attributes)
if (! $value instanceof AddressModel) {
throw new InvalidArgumentException('The given value is not an Address instance.');
return [
'address_line_one' => $value->lineOne,
'address_line_two' => $value->lineTwo,

Belongs To Many firstOrNew, firstOrCreate, and updateOrCreate Methods

Likelihood Of Impact: Medium

The belongsToMany relationship's firstOrNew, firstOrCreate, and updateOrCreate methods all accept an array of attributes as their first argument. In previous releases of Laravel, this array of attributes was compared against the "pivot" / intermediate table for existing records.

However, this behavior was unexpected and typically unwanted. Instead, these methods now compare the array of attributes against the table of the related model:

'name' => 'Administrator',

In addition, the firstOrCreate method now accepts a $values array as its second argument. This array will be merged with the first argument to the method ($attributes) when creating the related model if one does not already exist. This change makes this method consistent with the firstOrCreate methods offered by other relationship types:

'name' => 'Administrator',
], [
'created_by' => $user->id,

The touch Method

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The touch method now accepts an attribute to touch. If you were previously overwriting this method, you should update your method signature to reflect this new argument:

public function touch($attribute = null);


The Encrypter Contract

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The Illuminate\Contracts\Encryption\Encrypter contract now defines a getKey method. If you are manually implementing this interface, you should update your implementation accordingly:

public function getKey();


The getFacadeAccessor Method

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The getFacadeAccessor method must always return a container binding key. In previous releases of Laravel, this method could return an object instance; however, this behavior is no longer supported. If you have written your own facades, you should ensure that this method returns a container binding string:

* Get the registered name of the component.
* @return string
protected static function getFacadeAccessor()
return Example::class;


The FILESYSTEM_DRIVER Environment Variable

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The FILESYSTEM_DRIVER environment variable has been renamed to FILESYSTEM_DISK to more accurately reflect its usage. This change only affects the application skeleton; however, you are welcome to update your own application's environment variables to reflect this change if you wish.

The "Cloud" Disk

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The cloud disk configuration option was removed from the default application skeleton in November of 2020. This change only affects the application skeleton. If you are using the cloud disk within your application, you should leave this configuration value in your own application's skeleton.

Flysystem 3.x

Likelihood Of Impact: High

Laravel 9.x has migrated from Flysystem 1.x to 3.x. Under the hood, Flysystem powers all of the file manipulation methods provided by the Storage facade. In light of this, some changes may be required within your application; however, we have tried to make this transition as seamless as possible.

Driver Prerequisites

Before using the S3, FTP, or SFTP drivers, you will need to install the appropriate package via the Composer package manager:

  • Amazon S3: composer require -W league/flysystem-aws-s3-v3 "^3.0"
  • FTP: composer require league/flysystem-ftp "^3.0"
  • SFTP: composer require league/flysystem-sftp-v3 "^3.0"

Overwriting Existing Files

Write operations such as put, write, and writeStream now overwrite existing files by default. If you do not want to overwrite existing files, you should manually check for the file's existence before performing the write operation.

Write Exceptions

Write operations such as put, write, and writeStream no longer throw an exception when a write operation fails. Instead, false is returned. If you would like to preserve the previous behavior which threw exceptions, you may define the throw option within a filesystem disk's configuration array:

'public' => [
'driver' => 'local',
// ...
'throw' => true,

Reading Missing Files

Attempting to read from a file that does not exist now returns null. In previous releases of Laravel, an Illuminate\Contracts\Filesystem\FileNotFoundException would have been thrown.

Deleting Missing Files

Attempting to delete a file that does not exist now returns true.

Cached Adapters

Flysystem no longer supports "cached adapters". Thus, they have been removed from Laravel and any relevant configuration (such as the cache key within disk configurations) can be removed.

Custom Filesystems

Slight changes have been made to the steps required to register custom filesystem drivers. Therefore, if you were defining your own custom filesystem drivers, or using packages that define custom drivers, you should update your code and dependencies.

For example, in Laravel 8.x, a custom filesystem driver might be registered like so:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Storage;
use League\Flysystem\Filesystem;
use Spatie\Dropbox\Client as DropboxClient;
use Spatie\FlysystemDropbox\DropboxAdapter;
Storage::extend('dropbox', function ($app, $config) {
$client = new DropboxClient(
return new Filesystem(new DropboxAdapter($client));

However, in Laravel 9.x, the callback given to the Storage::extend method should return an instance of Illuminate\Filesystem\FilesystemAdapter directly:

use Illuminate\Filesystem\FilesystemAdapter;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Storage;
use League\Flysystem\Filesystem;
use Spatie\Dropbox\Client as DropboxClient;
use Spatie\FlysystemDropbox\DropboxAdapter;
Storage::extend('dropbox', function ($app, $config) {
$adapter = new DropboxAdapter(
new DropboxClient($config['authorization_token'])
return new FilesystemAdapter(
new Filesystem($adapter, $config),

SFTP Private-Public Key Passphrase

If your application is using Flysystem's SFTP adapter and private-public key authentication, the password configuration item that is used to decrypt the private key should be renamed to passphrase.


The data_get Helper & Iterable Objects

Likelihood Of Impact: Very Low

Previously, the data_get helper could be used to retrieve nested data on arrays and Collection instances; however, this helper can now retrieve nested data on all iterable objects.

The str Helper

Likelihood Of Impact: Very Low

Laravel 9.x now includes a global str helper function. If you are defining a global str helper in your application, you should rename or remove it so that it does not conflict with Laravel's own str helper.

The when / unless Methods

Likelihood Of Impact: Medium

As you may know, when and unless methods are offered by various classes throughout the framework. These methods can be used to conditionally perform an action if the boolean value of the first argument to the method evaluates to true or false:

$collection->when(true, function ($collection) {
$collection->merge([1, 2, 3]);

Therefore, in previous releases of Laravel, passing a closure to the when or unless methods meant that the conditional operation would always execute, since a loose comparison against a closure object (or any other object) always evaluates to true. This often led to unexpected outcomes because developers expect the result of the closure to be used as the boolean value that determines if the conditional action executes.

So, in Laravel 9.x, any closures passed to the when or unless methods will be executed and the value returned by the closure will be considered the boolean value used by the when and unless methods:

$collection->when(function ($collection) {
// This closure is executed...
return false;
}, function ($collection) {
// Not executed since first closure returned "false"...
$collection->merge([1, 2, 3]);

HTTP Client

Default Timeout

Likelihood Of Impact: Medium

The HTTP client now has a default timeout of 30 seconds. In other words, if the server does not respond within 30 seconds, an exception will be thrown. Previously, no default timeout length was configured on the HTTP client, causing requests to sometimes "hang" indefinitely.

If you wish to specify a longer timeout for a given request, you may do so using the timeout method:

$response = Http::timeout(120)->get(/* ... */);

HTTP Fake & Middleware

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

Previously, Laravel would not execute any provided Guzzle HTTP middleware when the HTTP client was "faked". However, in Laravel 9.x, Guzzle HTTP middleware will be executed even when the HTTP client is faked.

HTTP Fake & Dependency Injection

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

In previous releases of Laravel, invoking the Http::fake() method would not affect instances of the Illuminate\Http\Client\Factory that were injected into class constructors. However, in Laravel 9.x, Http::fake() will ensure fake responses are returned by HTTP clients injected into other services via dependency injection. This behavior is more consistent with the behavior of other facades and fakes.

Symfony Mailer

Likelihood Of Impact: High

One of the largest changes in Laravel 9.x is the transition from SwiftMailer, which is no longer maintained as of December 2021, to Symfony Mailer. However, we have tried to make this transition as seamless as possible for your applications. That being said, please thoroughly review the list of changes below to ensure your application is fully compatible.

Driver Prerequisites

To continue using the Mailgun transport, your application should require the symfony/mailgun-mailer and symfony/http-client Composer packages:

composer require symfony/mailgun-mailer symfony/http-client

The wildbit/swiftmailer-postmark Composer package should be removed from your application. Instead, your application should require the symfony/postmark-mailer and symfony/http-client Composer packages:

composer require symfony/postmark-mailer symfony/http-client

Updated Return Types

The send, html, raw, and plain methods on Illuminate\Mail\Mailer no longer return void. Instead, an instance of Illuminate\Mail\SentMessage is returned. This object contains an instance of Symfony\Component\Mailer\SentMessage that is accessible via the getSymfonySentMessage method or by dynamically invoking methods on the object.

Renamed "Swift" Methods

Various SwiftMailer related methods, some of which were undocumented, have been renamed to their Symfony Mailer counterparts. For example, the withSwiftMessage method has been renamed to withSymfonyMessage:

// Laravel 8.x...
$this->withSwiftMessage(function ($message) {
'Custom-Header', 'Header Value'
// Laravel 9.x...
use Symfony\Component\Mime\Email;
$this->withSymfonyMessage(function (Email $message) {
'Custom-Header', 'Header Value'

Please thoroughly review the Symfony Mailer documentation for all possible interactions with the Symfony\Component\Mime\Email object.

The list below contains a more thorough overview of renamed methods. Many of these methods are low-level methods used to interact with SwiftMailer / Symfony Mailer directly, so may not be commonly used within most Laravel applications:

Mailer::setSymfonyTransport(TransportInterface $transport);

Proxied Illuminate\Mail\Message Methods

The Illuminate\Mail\Message typically proxied missing methods to the underlying Swift_Message instance. However, missing methods are now proxied to an instance of Symfony\Component\Mime\Email instead. So, any code that was previously relying on missing methods to be proxied to SwiftMailer should be updated to their corresponding Symfony Mailer counterparts.

Again, many applications may not be interacting with these methods, as they are not documented within the Laravel documentation:

// Laravel 8.x...
->setFrom('[email protected]')
->setTo('[email protected]')
->setSubject('Order Shipped')
->setBody('<h1>HTML</h1>', 'text/html')
->addPart('Plain Text', 'text/plain');
// Laravel 9.x...
->subject('Order Shipped')
->text('Plain Text');

Generated Messages IDs

SwiftMailer offered the ability to define a custom domain to include in generated Message IDs via the mime.idgenerator.idright configuration option. This is not supported by Symfony Mailer. Instead, Symfony Mailer will automatically generate a Message ID based on the sender.

MessageSent Event Changes

The message property of the Illuminate\Mail\Events\MessageSent event now contains an instance of Symfony\Component\Mime\Email instead of an instance of Swift_Message. This message represents the email before it is sent.

Additionally, a new sent property has been added to the MessageSent event. This property contains an instance of Illuminate\Mail\SentMessage and contains information about the sent email, such as the message ID.

Forced Reconnections

It is no longer possible to force a transport reconnection (for example when the mailer is running via a daemon process). Instead, Symfony Mailer will attempt to reconnect to the transport automatically and throw an exception if the reconnection fails.

SMTP Stream Options

Defining stream options for the SMTP transport is no longer supported. Instead, you must define the relevant options directly within the configuration if they are supported. For example, to disable TLS peer verification:

'smtp' => [
// Laravel 8.x...
'stream' => [
'ssl' => [
'verify_peer' => false,
// Laravel 9.x...
'verify_peer' => false,

To learn more about the available configuration options, please review the Symfony Mailer documentation.


In spite of the example above, you are not generally advised to disable SSL verification since it introduces the possibility of "man-in-the-middle" attacks.

SMTP auth_mode

Defining the SMTP auth_mode in the mail configuration file is no longer required. The authentication mode will be automatically negotiated between Symfony Mailer and the SMTP server.

Failed Recipients

It is no longer possible to retrieve a list of failed recipients after sending a message. Instead, a Symfony\Component\Mailer\Exception\TransportExceptionInterface exception will be thrown if a message fails to send. Instead of relying on retrieving invalid email addresses after sending a message, we recommend that you validate email addresses before sending the message instead.


The lang Directory

Likelihood Of Impact: Medium

In new Laravel applications, the resources/lang directory is now located in the root project directory (lang). If your package is publishing language files to this directory, you should ensure that your package is publishing to app()->langPath() instead of a hard-coded path.


The opis/closure Library

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

Laravel's dependency on opis/closure has been replaced by laravel/serializable-closure. This should not cause any breaking change in your application unless you are interacting with the opis/closure library directly. In addition, the previously deprecated Illuminate\Queue\SerializableClosureFactory and Illuminate\Queue\SerializableClosure classes have been removed. If you are interacting with opis/closure library directly or using any of the removed classes, you may use Laravel Serializable Closure instead.

The Failed Job Provider flush Method

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The flush method defined by the Illuminate\Queue\Failed\FailedJobProviderInterface interface now accepts an $hours argument which determines how old a failed job must be (in hours) before it is flushed by the queue:flush command. If you are manually implementing the FailedJobProviderInterface you should ensure that your implementation is updated to reflect this new argument:

public function flush($hours = null);


The getSession Method

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The Symfony\Component\HttpFoundaton\Request class that is extended by Laravel's own Illuminate\Http\Request class offers a getSession method to get the current session storage handler. This method is not documented by Laravel as most Laravel applications interact with the session through Laravel's own session method.

The getSession method previously returned an instance of Illuminate\Session\Store or null; however, due to the Symfony 6.x release enforcing a return type of Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Session\SessionInterface, the getSession now correctly returns a SessionInterface implementation or throws an \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Exception\SessionNotFoundException exception when no session is available.


The assertDeleted Method

Likelihood Of Impact: Medium

All calls to the assertDeleted method should be updated to assertModelMissing.

Trusted Proxies

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

If you are upgrading your Laravel 8 project to Laravel 9 by importing your existing application code into a totally new Laravel 9 application skeleton, you may need to update your application's "trusted proxy" middleware.

Within your app/Http/Middleware/TrustProxies.php file, update use Fideloper\Proxy\TrustProxies as Middleware to use Illuminate\Http\Middleware\TrustProxies as Middleware.

Next, within app/Http/Middleware/TrustProxies.php, you should update the $headers property definition:

// Before...
protected $headers = Request::HEADER_X_FORWARDED_ALL;
// After...
protected $headers =

Finally, you can remove the fideloper/proxy Composer dependency from your application:

composer remove fideloper/proxy


Form Request validated Method

Likelihood Of Impact: Low

The validated method offered by form requests now accepts $key and $default arguments. If you are manually overwriting the definition of this method, you should update your method's signature to reflect these new arguments:

public function validated($key = null, $default = null)

The password Rule

Likelihood Of Impact: Medium

The password rule, which validates that the given input value matches the authenticated user's current password, has been renamed to current_password.

Unvalidated Array Keys

Likelihood Of Impact: Medium

In previous releases of Laravel, you were required to manually instruct Laravel's validator to exclude unvalidated array keys from the "validated" data it returns, especially in combination with an array rule that does not specify a list of allowed keys.

However, in Laravel 9.x, unvalidated array keys are always excluded from the "validated" data even when no allowed keys have been specified via the array rule. Typically, this behavior is the most expected behavior and the previous excludeUnvalidatedArrayKeys method was only added to Laravel 8.x as a temporary measure in order to preserve backwards compatibility.

Although it is not recommended, you may opt-in to the previous Laravel 8.x behavior by invoking a new includeUnvalidatedArrayKeys method within the boot method of one of your application's service providers:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Validator;
* Register any application services.
* @return void
public function boot()


We also encourage you to view the changes in the laravel/laravel GitHub repository. While many of these changes are not required, you may wish to keep these files in sync with your application. Some of these changes will be covered in this upgrade guide, but others, such as changes to configuration files or comments, will not be. You can easily view the changes with the GitHub comparison tool and choose which updates are important to you.