The default Laravel application structure is intended to provide a great starting point for both large and small applications. Of course, you are free to organize your application however you like. Laravel imposes almost no restrictions on where any given class is located - as long as Composer can autoload the class.
The Root Directory
The root directory of a fresh Laravel installation contains a variety of folders:
app directory, as you might expect, contains the core code of your application. We'll explore this folder in more detail soon.
bootstrap folder contains a few files that bootstrap the framework and configure autoloading.
config directory, as the name implies, contains all of your application's configuration files.
database folder contains your database migration and seeds.
resources directory contains your views, raw assets (LESS, SASS, CoffeeScript), and "language" files.
storage directory contains compiled Blade templates, file based sessions, file caches, and other files generated by the framework.
tests directory contains your automated tests.
vendor directory contains your Composer dependencies.
The App Directory
The "meat" of your application lives in the
app directory. By default, this directory is namespaced under
App and is autoloaded by Composer using the PSR-4 autoloading standard. You may change this namespace using the
app:name Artisan command.
app directory ships with a variety of additional directories such as
Providers. Think of the
Http directories as providing an API into the "core" of your application. The HTTP protocol and CLI are both mechanisms to interact with your application, but do not actually contain application logic. In other words, they are simply two ways of issuing commands to your application. The
Console directory contains all of your Artisan commands, while the
Http directory contains your controllers, filters, and requests.
Commands directory, of course, houses the commands for your application. Commands represent jobs that can be queued by your application, as well as tasks that you can run synchronously within the current request lifecycle.
Events directory, as you might expect, houses event classes. Of course, using classes to represent events is not required; however, if you choose to use them, this directory is the default location they will be created by the Artisan command line.
Handlers directory contains the handler classes for both commands and events. Handlers receive a command or event and perform logic in response to that command or event being fired.
Services directory contains various "helper" services your application needs to function. For example, the
Registrar service included with Laravel is responsible for validating and creating new users of your application. Other examples might be services to interact with external APIs, metrics systems, or even services that aggregate data from your own application.
Exceptions directory contains your application's exception handler and is also a good place to stick any exceptions thrown by your application.
Note: Many of the classes in the
appdirectory can be generated by Artisan via commands. To review the available commands, run the
php artisan list makecommand in your terminal.
Namespacing Your Application
As discussed above, the default application namespace is
App; however, you may change this namespace to match the name of your application, which is easily done via the
app:name Artisan command. For example, if your application is named "SocialNet", you would run the following command:
php artisan app:name SocialNet