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Helpers

Introduction

Laravel includes a variety of global "helper" PHP functions. Many of these functions are used by the framework itself; however, you are free to use them in your own applications if you find them convenient.

Available Methods

Arrays & Objects

Numbers

Paths

URLs

Miscellaneous

Arrays & Objects

Arr::accessible()

The Arr::accessible method determines if the given value is array accessible:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
use Illuminate\Support\Collection;
 
$isAccessible = Arr::accessible(['a' => 1, 'b' => 2]);
 
// true
 
$isAccessible = Arr::accessible(new Collection);
 
// true
 
$isAccessible = Arr::accessible('abc');
 
// false
 
$isAccessible = Arr::accessible(new stdClass);
 
// false

Arr::add()

The Arr::add method adds a given key / value pair to an array if the given key doesn't already exist in the array or is set to null:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = Arr::add(['name' => 'Desk'], 'price', 100);
 
// ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]
 
$array = Arr::add(['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => null], 'price', 100);
 
// ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]

Arr::collapse()

The Arr::collapse method collapses an array of arrays into a single array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = Arr::collapse([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]);
 
// [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

Arr::crossJoin()

The Arr::crossJoin method cross joins the given arrays, returning a Cartesian product with all possible permutations:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$matrix = Arr::crossJoin([1, 2], ['a', 'b']);
 
/*
[
[1, 'a'],
[1, 'b'],
[2, 'a'],
[2, 'b'],
]
*/
 
$matrix = Arr::crossJoin([1, 2], ['a', 'b'], ['I', 'II']);
 
/*
[
[1, 'a', 'I'],
[1, 'a', 'II'],
[1, 'b', 'I'],
[1, 'b', 'II'],
[2, 'a', 'I'],
[2, 'a', 'II'],
[2, 'b', 'I'],
[2, 'b', 'II'],
]
*/

Arr::divide()

The Arr::divide method returns two arrays: one containing the keys and the other containing the values of the given array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
[$keys, $values] = Arr::divide(['name' => 'Desk']);
 
// $keys: ['name']
 
// $values: ['Desk']

Arr::dot()

The Arr::dot method flattens a multi-dimensional array into a single level array that uses "dot" notation to indicate depth:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
 
$flattened = Arr::dot($array);
 
// ['products.desk.price' => 100]

Arr::except()

The Arr::except method removes the given key / value pairs from an array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100];
 
$filtered = Arr::except($array, ['price']);
 
// ['name' => 'Desk']

Arr::exists()

The Arr::exists method checks that the given key exists in the provided array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['name' => 'John Doe', 'age' => 17];
 
$exists = Arr::exists($array, 'name');
 
// true
 
$exists = Arr::exists($array, 'salary');
 
// false

Arr::first()

The Arr::first method returns the first element of an array passing a given truth test:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [100, 200, 300];
 
$first = Arr::first($array, function (int $value, int $key) {
return $value >= 150;
});
 
// 200

A default value may also be passed as the third parameter to the method. This value will be returned if no value passes the truth test:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$first = Arr::first($array, $callback, $default);

Arr::flatten()

The Arr::flatten method flattens a multi-dimensional array into a single level array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['name' => 'Joe', 'languages' => ['PHP', 'Ruby']];
 
$flattened = Arr::flatten($array);
 
// ['Joe', 'PHP', 'Ruby']

Arr::forget()

The Arr::forget method removes a given key / value pair from a deeply nested array using "dot" notation:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
 
Arr::forget($array, 'products.desk');
 
// ['products' => []]

Arr::get()

The Arr::get method retrieves a value from a deeply nested array using "dot" notation:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
 
$price = Arr::get($array, 'products.desk.price');
 
// 100

The Arr::get method also accepts a default value, which will be returned if the specified key is not present in the array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$discount = Arr::get($array, 'products.desk.discount', 0);
 
// 0

Arr::has()

The Arr::has method checks whether a given item or items exists in an array using "dot" notation:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['product' => ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]];
 
$contains = Arr::has($array, 'product.name');
 
// true
 
$contains = Arr::has($array, ['product.price', 'product.discount']);
 
// false

Arr::hasAny()

The Arr::hasAny method checks whether any item in a given set exists in an array using "dot" notation:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['product' => ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]];
 
$contains = Arr::hasAny($array, 'product.name');
 
// true
 
$contains = Arr::hasAny($array, ['product.name', 'product.discount']);
 
// true
 
$contains = Arr::hasAny($array, ['category', 'product.discount']);
 
// false

Arr::isAssoc()

The Arr::isAssoc method returns true if the given array is an associative array. An array is considered "associative" if it doesn't have sequential numerical keys beginning with zero:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$isAssoc = Arr::isAssoc(['product' => ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]]);
 
// true
 
$isAssoc = Arr::isAssoc([1, 2, 3]);
 
// false

Arr::isList()

The Arr::isList method returns true if the given array's keys are sequential integers beginning from zero:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$isList = Arr::isList(['foo', 'bar', 'baz']);
 
// true
 
$isList = Arr::isList(['product' => ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]]);
 
// false

Arr::join()

The Arr::join method joins array elements with a string. Using this method's second argument, you may also specify the joining string for the final element of the array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['Tailwind', 'Alpine', 'Laravel', 'Livewire'];
 
$joined = Arr::join($array, ', ');
 
// Tailwind, Alpine, Laravel, Livewire
 
$joined = Arr::join($array, ', ', ' and ');
 
// Tailwind, Alpine, Laravel and Livewire

Arr::keyBy()

The Arr::keyBy method keys the array by the given key. If multiple items have the same key, only the last one will appear in the new array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [
['product_id' => 'prod-100', 'name' => 'Desk'],
['product_id' => 'prod-200', 'name' => 'Chair'],
];
 
$keyed = Arr::keyBy($array, 'product_id');
 
/*
[
'prod-100' => ['product_id' => 'prod-100', 'name' => 'Desk'],
'prod-200' => ['product_id' => 'prod-200', 'name' => 'Chair'],
]
*/

Arr::last()

The Arr::last method returns the last element of an array passing a given truth test:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [100, 200, 300, 110];
 
$last = Arr::last($array, function (int $value, int $key) {
return $value >= 150;
});
 
// 300

A default value may be passed as the third argument to the method. This value will be returned if no value passes the truth test:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$last = Arr::last($array, $callback, $default);

Arr::map()

The Arr::map method iterates through the array and passes each value and key to the given callback. The array value is replaced by the value returned by the callback:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['first' => 'james', 'last' => 'kirk'];
 
$mapped = Arr::map($array, function (string $value, string $key) {
return ucfirst($value);
});
 
// ['first' => 'James', 'last' => 'Kirk']

Arr::mapWithKeys()

The Arr::mapWithKeys method iterates through the array and passes each value to the given callback. The callback should return an associative array containing a single key / value pair:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [
[
'name' => 'John',
'department' => 'Sales',
'email' => '[email protected]',
],
[
'name' => 'Jane',
'department' => 'Marketing',
'email' => '[email protected]',
]
];
 
$mapped = Arr::mapWithKeys($array, function (array $item, int $key) {
return [$item['email'] => $item['name']];
});
 
/*
[
'[email protected]' => 'John',
'[email protected]' => 'Jane',
]
*/

Arr::only()

The Arr::only method returns only the specified key / value pairs from the given array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100, 'orders' => 10];
 
$slice = Arr::only($array, ['name', 'price']);
 
// ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]

Arr::pluck()

The Arr::pluck method retrieves all of the values for a given key from an array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [
['developer' => ['id' => 1, 'name' => 'Taylor']],
['developer' => ['id' => 2, 'name' => 'Abigail']],
];
 
$names = Arr::pluck($array, 'developer.name');
 
// ['Taylor', 'Abigail']

You may also specify how you wish the resulting list to be keyed:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$names = Arr::pluck($array, 'developer.name', 'developer.id');
 
// [1 => 'Taylor', 2 => 'Abigail']

Arr::prepend()

The Arr::prepend method will push an item onto the beginning of an array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['one', 'two', 'three', 'four'];
 
$array = Arr::prepend($array, 'zero');
 
// ['zero', 'one', 'two', 'three', 'four']

If needed, you may specify the key that should be used for the value:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['price' => 100];
 
$array = Arr::prepend($array, 'Desk', 'name');
 
// ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100]

Arr::prependKeysWith()

The Arr::prependKeysWith prepends all key names of an associative array with the given prefix:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [
'name' => 'Desk',
'price' => 100,
];
 
$keyed = Arr::prependKeysWith($array, 'product.');
 
/*
[
'product.name' => 'Desk',
'product.price' => 100,
]
*/

Arr::pull()

The Arr::pull method returns and removes a key / value pair from an array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['name' => 'Desk', 'price' => 100];
 
$name = Arr::pull($array, 'name');
 
// $name: Desk
 
// $array: ['price' => 100]

A default value may be passed as the third argument to the method. This value will be returned if the key doesn't exist:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$value = Arr::pull($array, $key, $default);

Arr::query()

The Arr::query method converts the array into a query string:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [
'name' => 'Taylor',
'order' => [
'column' => 'created_at',
'direction' => 'desc'
]
];
 
Arr::query($array);
 
// name=Taylor&order[column]=created_at&order[direction]=desc

Arr::random()

The Arr::random method returns a random value from an array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
 
$random = Arr::random($array);
 
// 4 - (retrieved randomly)

You may also specify the number of items to return as an optional second argument. Note that providing this argument will return an array even if only one item is desired:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$items = Arr::random($array, 2);
 
// [2, 5] - (retrieved randomly)

Arr::set()

The Arr::set method sets a value within a deeply nested array using "dot" notation:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
 
Arr::set($array, 'products.desk.price', 200);
 
// ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 200]]]

Arr::shuffle()

The Arr::shuffle method randomly shuffles the items in the array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = Arr::shuffle([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);
 
// [3, 2, 5, 1, 4] - (generated randomly)

Arr::sort()

The Arr::sort method sorts an array by its values:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['Desk', 'Table', 'Chair'];
 
$sorted = Arr::sort($array);
 
// ['Chair', 'Desk', 'Table']

You may also sort the array by the results of a given closure:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [
['name' => 'Desk'],
['name' => 'Table'],
['name' => 'Chair'],
];
 
$sorted = array_values(Arr::sort($array, function (array $value) {
return $value['name'];
}));
 
/*
[
['name' => 'Chair'],
['name' => 'Desk'],
['name' => 'Table'],
]
*/

Arr::sortDesc()

The Arr::sortDesc method sorts an array in descending order by its values:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = ['Desk', 'Table', 'Chair'];
 
$sorted = Arr::sortDesc($array);
 
// ['Table', 'Desk', 'Chair']

You may also sort the array by the results of a given closure:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [
['name' => 'Desk'],
['name' => 'Table'],
['name' => 'Chair'],
];
 
$sorted = array_values(Arr::sortDesc($array, function (array $value) {
return $value['name'];
}));
 
/*
[
['name' => 'Table'],
['name' => 'Desk'],
['name' => 'Chair'],
]
*/

Arr::sortRecursive()

The Arr::sortRecursive method recursively sorts an array using the sort function for numerically indexed sub-arrays and the ksort function for associative sub-arrays:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [
['Roman', 'Taylor', 'Li'],
['PHP', 'Ruby', 'JavaScript'],
['one' => 1, 'two' => 2, 'three' => 3],
];
 
$sorted = Arr::sortRecursive($array);
 
/*
[
['JavaScript', 'PHP', 'Ruby'],
['one' => 1, 'three' => 3, 'two' => 2],
['Li', 'Roman', 'Taylor'],
]
*/

If you would like the results sorted in descending order, you may use the Arr::sortRecursiveDesc method.

$sorted = Arr::sortRecursiveDesc($array);

Arr::take()

The Arr::take method returns a new array with the specified number of items:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
 
$chunk = Arr::take($array, 3);
 
// [0, 1, 2]

You may also pass a negative integer to take the specified number of items from the end of the array:

$array = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
 
$chunk = Arr::take($array, -2);
 
// [4, 5]

Arr::toCssClasses()

The Arr::toCssClasses method conditionally compiles a CSS class string. The method accepts an array of classes where the array key contains the class or classes you wish to add, while the value is a boolean expression. If the array element has a numeric key, it will always be included in the rendered class list:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$isActive = false;
$hasError = true;
 
$array = ['p-4', 'font-bold' => $isActive, 'bg-red' => $hasError];
 
$classes = Arr::toCssClasses($array);
 
/*
'p-4 bg-red'
*/

Arr::toCssStyles()

The Arr::toCssStyles conditionally compiles a CSS style string. The method accepts an array of classes where the array key contains the class or classes you wish to add, while the value is a boolean expression. If the array element has a numeric key, it will always be included in the rendered class list:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$hasColor = true;
 
$array = ['background-color: blue', 'color: blue' => $hasColor];
 
$classes = Arr::toCssStyles($array);
 
/*
'background-color: blue; color: blue;'
*/

This method powers Laravel's functionality allowing merging classes with a Blade component's attribute bag as well as the @class Blade directive.

Arr::undot()

The Arr::undot method expands a single-dimensional array that uses "dot" notation into a multi-dimensional array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [
'user.name' => 'Kevin Malone',
'user.occupation' => 'Accountant',
];
 
$array = Arr::undot($array);
 
// ['user' => ['name' => 'Kevin Malone', 'occupation' => 'Accountant']]

Arr::where()

The Arr::where method filters an array using the given closure:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [100, '200', 300, '400', 500];
 
$filtered = Arr::where($array, function (string|int $value, int $key) {
return is_string($value);
});
 
// [1 => '200', 3 => '400']

Arr::whereNotNull()

The Arr::whereNotNull method removes all null values from the given array:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = [0, null];
 
$filtered = Arr::whereNotNull($array);
 
// [0 => 0]

Arr::wrap()

The Arr::wrap method wraps the given value in an array. If the given value is already an array it will be returned without modification:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$string = 'Laravel';
 
$array = Arr::wrap($string);
 
// ['Laravel']

If the given value is null, an empty array will be returned:

use Illuminate\Support\Arr;
 
$array = Arr::wrap(null);
 
// []

data_fill()

The data_fill function sets a missing value within a nested array or object using "dot" notation:

$data = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
 
data_fill($data, 'products.desk.price', 200);
 
// ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]]
 
data_fill($data, 'products.desk.discount', 10);
 
// ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100, 'discount' => 10]]]

This function also accepts asterisks as wildcards and will fill the target accordingly:

$data = [
'products' => [
['name' => 'Desk 1', 'price' => 100],
['name' => 'Desk 2'],
],
];
 
data_fill($data, 'products.*.price', 200);
 
/*
[
'products' => [
['name' => 'Desk 1', 'price' => 100],
['name' => 'Desk 2', 'price' => 200],
],
]
*/

data_get()

The data_get function retrieves a value from a nested array or object using "dot" notation:

$data = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
 
$price = data_get($data, 'products.desk.price');
 
// 100

The data_get function also accepts a default value, which will be returned if the specified key is not found:

$discount = data_get($data, 'products.desk.discount', 0);
 
// 0

The function also accepts wildcards using asterisks, which may target any key of the array or object:

$data = [
'product-one' => ['name' => 'Desk 1', 'price' => 100],
'product-two' => ['name' => 'Desk 2', 'price' => 150],
];
 
data_get($data, '*.name');
 
// ['Desk 1', 'Desk 2'];

data_set()

The data_set function sets a value within a nested array or object using "dot" notation:

$data = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
 
data_set($data, 'products.desk.price', 200);
 
// ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 200]]]

This function also accepts wildcards using asterisks and will set values on the target accordingly:

$data = [
'products' => [
['name' => 'Desk 1', 'price' => 100],
['name' => 'Desk 2', 'price' => 150],
],
];
 
data_set($data, 'products.*.price', 200);
 
/*
[
'products' => [
['name' => 'Desk 1', 'price' => 200],
['name' => 'Desk 2', 'price' => 200],
],
]
*/

By default, any existing values are overwritten. If you wish to only set a value if it doesn't exist, you may pass false as the fourth argument to the function:

$data = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
 
data_set($data, 'products.desk.price', 200, overwrite: false);
 
// ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]]

data_forget()

The data_forget function removes a value within a nested array or object using "dot" notation:

$data = ['products' => ['desk' => ['price' => 100]]];
 
data_forget($data, 'products.desk.price');
 
// ['products' => ['desk' => []]]

This function also accepts wildcards using asterisks and will remove values on the target accordingly:

$data = [
'products' => [
['name' => 'Desk 1', 'price' => 100],
['name' => 'Desk 2', 'price' => 150],
],
];
 
data_forget($data, 'products.*.price');
 
/*
[
'products' => [
['name' => 'Desk 1'],
['name' => 'Desk 2'],
],
]
*/

head()

The head function returns the first element in the given array:

$array = [100, 200, 300];
 
$first = head($array);
 
// 100

last()

The last function returns the last element in the given array:

$array = [100, 200, 300];
 
$last = last($array);
 
// 300

Numbers

Number::abbreviate()

The Number::abbreviate method returns the human-readable format of the provided numerical value, with an abbreviation for the units:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$number = Number::abbreviate(1000);
 
// 1K
 
$number = Number::abbreviate(489939);
 
// 490K
 
$number = Number::abbreviate(1230000, precision: 2);
 
// 1.23M

Number::clamp()

The Number::clamp method ensures a given number stays within a specified range. If the number is lower than the minimum, the minimum value is returned. If the number is higher than the maximum, the maximum value is returned:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$number = Number::clamp(105, min: 10, max: 100);
 
// 100
 
$number = Number::clamp(5, min: 10, max: 100);
 
// 10
 
$number = Number::clamp(10, min: 10, max: 100);
 
// 10
 
$number = Number::clamp(20, min: 10, max: 100);
 
// 20

Number::currency()

The Number::currency method returns the currency representation of the given value as a string:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$currency = Number::currency(1000);
 
// $1,000
 
$currency = Number::currency(1000, in: 'EUR');
 
// €1,000
 
$currency = Number::currency(1000, in: 'EUR', locale: 'de');
 
// 1.000 €

Number::fileSize()

The Number::fileSize method returns the file size representation of the given byte value as a string:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$size = Number::fileSize(1024);
 
// 1 KB
 
$size = Number::fileSize(1024 * 1024);
 
// 1 MB
 
$size = Number::fileSize(1024, precision: 2);
 
// 1.00 KB

Number::forHumans()

The Number::forHumans method returns the human-readable format of the provided numerical value:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$number = Number::forHumans(1000);
 
// 1 thousand
 
$number = Number::forHumans(489939);
 
// 490 thousand
 
$number = Number::forHumans(1230000, precision: 2);
 
// 1.23 million

Number::format()

The Number::format method formats the given number into a locale specific string:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$number = Number::format(100000);
 
// 100,000
 
$number = Number::format(100000, precision: 2);
 
// 100,000.00
 
$number = Number::format(100000.123, maxPrecision: 2);
 
// 100,000.12
 
$number = Number::format(100000, locale: 'de');
 
// 100.000

Number::ordinal()

The Number::ordinal method returns a number's ordinal representation:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$number = Number::ordinal(1);
 
// 1st
 
$number = Number::ordinal(2);
 
// 2nd
 
$number = Number::ordinal(21);
 
// 21st

Number::percentage()

The Number::percentage method returns the percentage representation of the given value as a string:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$percentage = Number::percentage(10);
 
// 10%
 
$percentage = Number::percentage(10, precision: 2);
 
// 10.00%
 
$percentage = Number::percentage(10.123, maxPrecision: 2);
 
// 10.12%
 
$percentage = Number::percentage(10, precision: 2, locale: 'de');
 
// 10,00%

Number::spell()

The Number::spell method transforms the given number into a string of words:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$number = Number::spell(102);
 
// one hundred and two
 
$number = Number::spell(88, locale: 'fr');
 
// quatre-vingt-huit

The after argument allows you to specify a value after which all numbers should be spelled out:

$number = Number::spell(10, after: 10);
 
// 10
 
$number = Number::spell(11, after: 10);
 
// eleven

The until argument allows you to specify a value before which all numbers should be spelled out:

$number = Number::spell(5, until: 10);
 
// five
 
$number = Number::spell(10, until: 10);
 
// 10

Number::useLocale()

The Number::useLocale method sets the default number locale globally, which affects how numbers and currency are formatted by subsequent invocations to the Number class's methods:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
/**
* Bootstrap any application services.
*/
public function boot(): void
{
Number::useLocale('de');
}

Number::withLocale()

The Number::withLocale method executes the given closure using the specified locale and then restores the original locale after the callback has executed:

use Illuminate\Support\Number;
 
$number = Number::withLocale('de', function () {
return Number::format(1500);
});

Paths

app_path()

The app_path function returns the fully qualified path to your application's app directory. You may also use the app_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a file relative to the application directory:

$path = app_path();
 
$path = app_path('Http/Controllers/Controller.php');

base_path()

The base_path function returns the fully qualified path to your application's root directory. You may also use the base_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file relative to the project root directory:

$path = base_path();
 
$path = base_path('vendor/bin');

config_path()

The config_path function returns the fully qualified path to your application's config directory. You may also use the config_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the application's configuration directory:

$path = config_path();
 
$path = config_path('app.php');

database_path()

The database_path function returns the fully qualified path to your application's database directory. You may also use the database_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the database directory:

$path = database_path();
 
$path = database_path('factories/UserFactory.php');

lang_path()

The lang_path function returns the fully qualified path to your application's lang directory. You may also use the lang_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the directory:

$path = lang_path();
 
$path = lang_path('en/messages.php');

[!NOTE]
By default, the Laravel application skeleton does not include the lang directory. If you would like to customize Laravel's language files, you may publish them via the lang:publish Artisan command.

mix()

The mix function returns the path to a versioned Mix file:

$path = mix('css/app.css');

public_path()

The public_path function returns the fully qualified path to your application's public directory. You may also use the public_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the public directory:

$path = public_path();
 
$path = public_path('css/app.css');

resource_path()

The resource_path function returns the fully qualified path to your application's resources directory. You may also use the resource_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the resources directory:

$path = resource_path();
 
$path = resource_path('sass/app.scss');

storage_path()

The storage_path function returns the fully qualified path to your application's storage directory. You may also use the storage_path function to generate a fully qualified path to a given file within the storage directory:

$path = storage_path();
 
$path = storage_path('app/file.txt');

URLs

action()

The action function generates a URL for the given controller action:

use App\Http\Controllers\HomeController;
 
$url = action([HomeController::class, 'index']);

If the method accepts route parameters, you may pass them as the second argument to the method:

$url = action([UserController::class, 'profile'], ['id' => 1]);

asset()

The asset function generates a URL for an asset using the current scheme of the request (HTTP or HTTPS):

$url = asset('img/photo.jpg');

You can configure the asset URL host by setting the ASSET_URL variable in your .env file. This can be useful if you host your assets on an external service like Amazon S3 or another CDN:

// ASSET_URL=http://example.com/assets
 
$url = asset('img/photo.jpg'); // http://example.com/assets/img/photo.jpg

route()

The route function generates a URL for a given named route:

$url = route('route.name');

If the route accepts parameters, you may pass them as the second argument to the function:

$url = route('route.name', ['id' => 1]);

By default, the route function generates an absolute URL. If you wish to generate a relative URL, you may pass false as the third argument to the function:

$url = route('route.name', ['id' => 1], false);

secure_asset()

The secure_asset function generates a URL for an asset using HTTPS:

$url = secure_asset('img/photo.jpg');

secure_url()

The secure_url function generates a fully qualified HTTPS URL to the given path. Additional URL segments may be passed in the function's second argument:

$url = secure_url('user/profile');
 
$url = secure_url('user/profile', [1]);

to_route()

The to_route function generates a redirect HTTP response for a given named route:

return to_route('users.show', ['user' => 1]);

If necessary, you may pass the HTTP status code that should be assigned to the redirect and any additional response headers as the third and fourth arguments to the to_route method:

return to_route('users.show', ['user' => 1], 302, ['X-Framework' => 'Laravel']);

url()

The url function generates a fully qualified URL to the given path:

$url = url('user/profile');
 
$url = url('user/profile', [1]);

If no path is provided, an Illuminate\Routing\UrlGenerator instance is returned:

$current = url()->current();
 
$full = url()->full();
 
$previous = url()->previous();

Miscellaneous

abort()

The abort function throws an HTTP exception which will be rendered by the exception handler:

abort(403);

You may also provide the exception's message and custom HTTP response headers that should be sent to the browser:

abort(403, 'Unauthorized.', $headers);

abort_if()

The abort_if function throws an HTTP exception if a given boolean expression evaluates to true:

abort_if(! Auth::user()->isAdmin(), 403);

Like the abort method, you may also provide the exception's response text as the third argument and an array of custom response headers as the fourth argument to the function.

abort_unless()

The abort_unless function throws an HTTP exception if a given boolean expression evaluates to false:

abort_unless(Auth::user()->isAdmin(), 403);

Like the abort method, you may also provide the exception's response text as the third argument and an array of custom response headers as the fourth argument to the function.

app()

The app function returns the service container instance:

$container = app();

You may pass a class or interface name to resolve it from the container:

$api = app('HelpSpot\API');

auth()

The auth function returns an authenticator instance. You may use it as an alternative to the Auth facade:

$user = auth()->user();

If needed, you may specify which guard instance you would like to access:

$user = auth('admin')->user();

back()

The back function generates a redirect HTTP response to the user's previous location:

return back($status = 302, $headers = [], $fallback = '/');
 
return back();

bcrypt()

The bcrypt function hashes the given value using Bcrypt. You may use this function as an alternative to the Hash facade:

$password = bcrypt('my-secret-password');

blank()

The blank function determines whether the given value is "blank":

blank('');
blank(' ');
blank(null);
blank(collect());
 
// true
 
blank(0);
blank(true);
blank(false);
 
// false

For the inverse of blank, see the filled method.

broadcast()

The broadcast function broadcasts the given event to its listeners:

broadcast(new UserRegistered($user));
 
broadcast(new UserRegistered($user))->toOthers();

cache()

The cache function may be used to get values from the cache. If the given key does not exist in the cache, an optional default value will be returned:

$value = cache('key');
 
$value = cache('key', 'default');

You may add items to the cache by passing an array of key / value pairs to the function. You should also pass the number of seconds or duration the cached value should be considered valid:

cache(['key' => 'value'], 300);
 
cache(['key' => 'value'], now()->addSeconds(10));

class_uses_recursive()

The class_uses_recursive function returns all traits used by a class, including traits used by all of its parent classes:

$traits = class_uses_recursive(App\Models\User::class);

collect()

The collect function creates a collection instance from the given value:

$collection = collect(['taylor', 'abigail']);

config()

The config function gets the value of a configuration variable. The configuration values may be accessed using "dot" syntax, which includes the name of the file and the option you wish to access. A default value may be specified and is returned if the configuration option does not exist:

$value = config('app.timezone');
 
$value = config('app.timezone', $default);

You may set configuration variables at runtime by passing an array of key / value pairs. However, note that this function only affects the configuration value for the current request and does not update your actual configuration values:

config(['app.debug' => true]);

cookie()

The cookie function creates a new cookie instance:

$cookie = cookie('name', 'value', $minutes);

csrf_field()

The csrf_field function generates an HTML hidden input field containing the value of the CSRF token. For example, using Blade syntax:

{{ csrf_field() }}

csrf_token()

The csrf_token function retrieves the value of the current CSRF token:

$token = csrf_token();

decrypt()

The decrypt function decrypts the given value. You may use this function as an alternative to the Crypt facade:

$password = decrypt($value);

dd()

The dd function dumps the given variables and ends the execution of the script:

dd($value);
 
dd($value1, $value2, $value3, ...);

If you do not want to halt the execution of your script, use the dump function instead.

dispatch()

The dispatch function pushes the given job onto the Laravel job queue:

dispatch(new App\Jobs\SendEmails);

dispatch_sync()

The dispatch_sync function pushes the given job to the sync queue so that it is processed immediately:

dispatch_sync(new App\Jobs\SendEmails);

dump()

The dump function dumps the given variables:

dump($value);
 
dump($value1, $value2, $value3, ...);

If you want to stop executing the script after dumping the variables, use the dd function instead.

encrypt()

The encrypt function encrypts the given value. You may use this function as an alternative to the Crypt facade:

$secret = encrypt('my-secret-value');

env()

The env function retrieves the value of an environment variable or returns a default value:

$env = env('APP_ENV');
 
$env = env('APP_ENV', 'production');

[!WARNING]
If you execute the config:cache command during your deployment process, you should be sure that you are only calling the env function from within your configuration files. Once the configuration has been cached, the .env file will not be loaded and all calls to the env function will return null.

event()

The event function dispatches the given event to its listeners:

event(new UserRegistered($user));

fake()

The fake function resolves a Faker singleton from the container, which can be useful when creating fake data in model factories, database seeding, tests, and prototyping views:

@for($i = 0; $i < 10; $i++)
<dl>
<dt>Name</dt>
<dd>{{ fake()->name() }}</dd>
 
<dt>Email</dt>
<dd>{{ fake()->unique()->safeEmail() }}</dd>
</dl>
@endfor

By default, the fake function will utilize the app.faker_locale configuration option in your config/app.php configuration file; however, you may also specify the locale by passing it to the fake function. Each locale will resolve an individual singleton:

fake('nl_NL')->name()

filled()

The filled function determines whether the given value is not "blank":

filled(0);
filled(true);
filled(false);
 
// true
 
filled('');
filled(' ');
filled(null);
filled(collect());
 
// false

For the inverse of filled, see the blank method.

info()

The info function will write information to your application's log:

info('Some helpful information!');

An array of contextual data may also be passed to the function:

info('User login attempt failed.', ['id' => $user->id]);

logger()

The logger function can be used to write a debug level message to the log:

logger('Debug message');

An array of contextual data may also be passed to the function:

logger('User has logged in.', ['id' => $user->id]);

A logger instance will be returned if no value is passed to the function:

logger()->error('You are not allowed here.');

method_field()

The method_field function generates an HTML hidden input field containing the spoofed value of the form's HTTP verb. For example, using Blade syntax:

<form method="POST">
{{ method_field('DELETE') }}
</form>

now()

The now function creates a new Illuminate\Support\Carbon instance for the current time:

$now = now();

old()

The old function retrieves an old input value flashed into the session:

$value = old('value');
 
$value = old('value', 'default');

Since the "default value" provided as the second argument to the old function is often an attribute of an Eloquent model, Laravel allows you to simply pass the entire Eloquent model as the second argument to the old function. When doing so, Laravel will assume the first argument provided to the old function is the name of the Eloquent attribute that should be considered the "default value":

{{ old('name', $user->name) }}
 
// Is equivalent to...
 
{{ old('name', $user) }}

optional()

The optional function accepts any argument and allows you to access properties or call methods on that object. If the given object is null, properties and methods will return null instead of causing an error:

return optional($user->address)->street;
 
{!! old('name', optional($user)->name) !!}

The optional function also accepts a closure as its second argument. The closure will be invoked if the value provided as the first argument is not null:

return optional(User::find($id), function (User $user) {
return $user->name;
});

policy()

The policy method retrieves a policy instance for a given class:

$policy = policy(App\Models\User::class);

redirect()

The redirect function returns a redirect HTTP response, or returns the redirector instance if called with no arguments:

return redirect($to = null, $status = 302, $headers = [], $https = null);
 
return redirect('/home');
 
return redirect()->route('route.name');

report()

The report function will report an exception using your exception handler:

report($e);

The report function also accepts a string as an argument. When a string is given to the function, the function will create an exception with the given string as its message:

report('Something went wrong.');

report_if()

The report_if function will report an exception using your exception handler if the given condition is true:

report_if($shouldReport, $e);
 
report_if($shouldReport, 'Something went wrong.');

report_unless()

The report_unless function will report an exception using your exception handler if the given condition is false:

report_unless($reportingDisabled, $e);
 
report_unless($reportingDisabled, 'Something went wrong.');

request()

The request function returns the current request instance or obtains an input field's value from the current request:

$request = request();
 
$value = request('key', $default);

rescue()

The rescue function executes the given closure and catches any exceptions that occur during its execution. All exceptions that are caught will be sent to your exception handler; however, the request will continue processing:

return rescue(function () {
return $this->method();
});

You may also pass a second argument to the rescue function. This argument will be the "default" value that should be returned if an exception occurs while executing the closure:

return rescue(function () {
return $this->method();
}, false);
 
return rescue(function () {
return $this->method();
}, function () {
return $this->failure();
});

A report argument may be provided to the rescue function to determine if the exception should be reported via the report function:

return rescue(function () {
return $this->method();
}, report: function (Throwable $throwable) {
return $throwable instanceof InvalidArgumentException;
});

resolve()

The resolve function resolves a given class or interface name to an instance using the service container:

$api = resolve('HelpSpot\API');

response()

The response function creates a response instance or obtains an instance of the response factory:

return response('Hello World', 200, $headers);
 
return response()->json(['foo' => 'bar'], 200, $headers);

retry()

The retry function attempts to execute the given callback until the given maximum attempt threshold is met. If the callback does not throw an exception, its return value will be returned. If the callback throws an exception, it will automatically be retried. If the maximum attempt count is exceeded, the exception will be thrown:

return retry(5, function () {
// Attempt 5 times while resting 100ms between attempts...
}, 100);

If you would like to manually calculate the number of milliseconds to sleep between attempts, you may pass a closure as the third argument to the retry function:

use Exception;
 
return retry(5, function () {
// ...
}, function (int $attempt, Exception $exception) {
return $attempt * 100;
});

For convenience, you may provide an array as the first argument to the retry function. This array will be used to determine how many milliseconds to sleep between subsequent attempts:

return retry([100, 200], function () {
// Sleep for 100ms on first retry, 200ms on second retry...
});

To only retry under specific conditions, you may pass a closure as the fourth argument to the retry function:

use Exception;
 
return retry(5, function () {
// ...
}, 100, function (Exception $exception) {
return $exception instanceof RetryException;
});

session()

The session function may be used to get or set session values:

$value = session('key');

You may set values by passing an array of key / value pairs to the function:

session(['chairs' => 7, 'instruments' => 3]);

The session store will be returned if no value is passed to the function:

$value = session()->get('key');
 
session()->put('key', $value);

tap()

The tap function accepts two arguments: an arbitrary $value and a closure. The $value will be passed to the closure and then be returned by the tap function. The return value of the closure is irrelevant:

$user = tap(User::first(), function (User $user) {
$user->name = 'taylor';
 
$user->save();
});

If no closure is passed to the tap function, you may call any method on the given $value. The return value of the method you call will always be $value, regardless of what the method actually returns in its definition. For example, the Eloquent update method typically returns an integer. However, we can force the method to return the model itself by chaining the update method call through the tap function:

$user = tap($user)->update([
'name' => $name,
'email' => $email,
]);

To add a tap method to a class, you may add the Illuminate\Support\Traits\Tappable trait to the class. The tap method of this trait accepts a Closure as its only argument. The object instance itself will be passed to the Closure and then be returned by the tap method:

return $user->tap(function (User $user) {
// ...
});

throw_if()

The throw_if function throws the given exception if a given boolean expression evaluates to true:

throw_if(! Auth::user()->isAdmin(), AuthorizationException::class);
 
throw_if(
! Auth::user()->isAdmin(),
AuthorizationException::class,
'You are not allowed to access this page.'
);

throw_unless()

The throw_unless function throws the given exception if a given boolean expression evaluates to false:

throw_unless(Auth::user()->isAdmin(), AuthorizationException::class);
 
throw_unless(
Auth::user()->isAdmin(),
AuthorizationException::class,
'You are not allowed to access this page.'
);

today()

The today function creates a new Illuminate\Support\Carbon instance for the current date:

$today = today();

trait_uses_recursive()

The trait_uses_recursive function returns all traits used by a trait:

$traits = trait_uses_recursive(\Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable::class);

transform()

The transform function executes a closure on a given value if the value is not blank and then returns the return value of the closure:

$callback = function (int $value) {
return $value * 2;
};
 
$result = transform(5, $callback);
 
// 10

A default value or closure may be passed as the third argument to the function. This value will be returned if the given value is blank:

$result = transform(null, $callback, 'The value is blank');
 
// The value is blank

validator()

The validator function creates a new validator instance with the given arguments. You may use it as an alternative to the Validator facade:

$validator = validator($data, $rules, $messages);

value()

The value function returns the value it is given. However, if you pass a closure to the function, the closure will be executed and its returned value will be returned:

$result = value(true);
 
// true
 
$result = value(function () {
return false;
});
 
// false

Additional arguments may be passed to the value function. If the first argument is a closure then the additional parameters will be passed to the closure as arguments, otherwise they will be ignored:

$result = value(function (string $name) {
return $name;
}, 'Taylor');
 
// 'Taylor'

view()

The view function retrieves a view instance:

return view('auth.login');

with()

The with function returns the value it is given. If a closure is passed as the second argument to the function, the closure will be executed and its returned value will be returned:

$callback = function (mixed $value) {
return is_numeric($value) ? $value * 2 : 0;
};
 
$result = with(5, $callback);
 
// 10
 
$result = with(null, $callback);
 
// 0
 
$result = with(5, null);
 
// 5

Other Utilities

Benchmarking

Sometimes you may wish to quickly test the performance of certain parts of your application. On those occasions, you may utilize the Benchmark support class to measure the number of milliseconds it takes for the given callbacks to complete:

<?php
 
use App\Models\User;
use Illuminate\Support\Benchmark;
 
Benchmark::dd(fn () => User::find(1)); // 0.1 ms
 
Benchmark::dd([
'Scenario 1' => fn () => User::count(), // 0.5 ms
'Scenario 2' => fn () => User::all()->count(), // 20.0 ms
]);

By default, the given callbacks will be executed once (one iteration), and their duration will be displayed in the browser / console.

To invoke a callback more than once, you may specify the number of iterations that the callback should be invoked as the second argument to the method. When executing a callback more than once, the Benchmark class will return the average amount of milliseconds it took to execute the callback across all iterations:

Benchmark::dd(fn () => User::count(), iterations: 10); // 0.5 ms

Sometimes, you may want to benchmark the execution of a callback while still obtaining the value returned by the callback. The value method will return a tuple containing the value returned by the callback and the amount of milliseconds it took to execute the callback:

[$count, $duration] = Benchmark::value(fn () => User::count());

Dates

Laravel includes Carbon, a powerful date and time manipulation library. To create a new Carbon instance, you may invoke the now function. This function is globally available within your Laravel application:

$now = now();

Or, you may create a new Carbon instance using the Illuminate\Support\Carbon class:

use Illuminate\Support\Carbon;
 
$now = Carbon::now();

For a thorough discussion of Carbon and its features, please consult the official Carbon documentation.

Lottery

Laravel's lottery class may be used to execute callbacks based on a set of given odds. This can be particularly useful when you only want to execute code for a percentage of your incoming requests:

use Illuminate\Support\Lottery;
 
Lottery::odds(1, 20)
->winner(fn () => $user->won())
->loser(fn () => $user->lost())
->choose();

You may combine Laravel's lottery class with other Laravel features. For example, you may wish to only report a small percentage of slow queries to your exception handler. And, since the lottery class is callable, we may pass an instance of the class into any method that accepts callables:

use Carbon\CarbonInterval;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\DB;
use Illuminate\Support\Lottery;
 
DB::whenQueryingForLongerThan(
CarbonInterval::seconds(2),
Lottery::odds(1, 100)->winner(fn () => report('Querying > 2 seconds.')),
);

Testing Lotteries

Laravel provides some simple methods to allow you to easily test your application's lottery invocations:

// Lottery will always win...
Lottery::alwaysWin();
 
// Lottery will always lose...
Lottery::alwaysLose();
 
// Lottery will win then lose, and finally return to normal behavior...
Lottery::fix([true, false]);
 
// Lottery will return to normal behavior...
Lottery::determineResultsNormally();

Pipeline

Laravel's Pipeline facade provides a convenient way to "pipe" a given input through a series of invokable classes, closures, or callables, giving each class the opportunity to inspect or modify the input and invoke the next callable in the pipeline:

use Closure;
use App\Models\User;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Pipeline;
 
$user = Pipeline::send($user)
->through([
function (User $user, Closure $next) {
// ...
 
return $next($user);
},
function (User $user, Closure $next) {
// ...
 
return $next($user);
},
])
->then(fn (User $user) => $user);

As you can see, each invokable class or closure in the pipeline is provided the input and a $next closure. Invoking the $next closure will invoke the next callable in the pipeline. As you may have noticed, this is very similar to middleware.

When the last callable in the pipeline invokes the $next closure, the callable provided to the then method will be invoked. Typically, this callable will simply return the given input.

Of course, as discussed previously, you are not limited to providing closures to your pipeline. You may also provide invokable classes. If a class name is provided, the class will be instantiated via Laravel's service container, allowing dependencies to be injected into the invokable class:

$user = Pipeline::send($user)
->through([
GenerateProfilePhoto::class,
ActivateSubscription::class,
SendWelcomeEmail::class,
])
->then(fn (User $user) => $user);

Sleep

Laravel's Sleep class is a light-weight wrapper around PHP's native sleep and usleep functions, offering greater testability while also exposing a developer friendly API for working with time:

use Illuminate\Support\Sleep;
 
$waiting = true;
 
while ($waiting) {
Sleep::for(1)->second();
 
$waiting = /* ... */;
}

The Sleep class offers a variety of methods that allow you to work with different units of time:

// Pause execution for 90 seconds...
Sleep::for(1.5)->minutes();
 
// Pause execution for 2 seconds...
Sleep::for(2)->seconds();
 
// Pause execution for 500 milliseconds...
Sleep::for(500)->milliseconds();
 
// Pause execution for 5,000 microseconds...
Sleep::for(5000)->microseconds();
 
// Pause execution until a given time...
Sleep::until(now()->addMinute());
 
// Alias of PHP's native "sleep" function...
Sleep::sleep(2);
 
// Alias of PHP's native "usleep" function...
Sleep::usleep(5000);

To easily combine units of time, you may use the and method:

Sleep::for(1)->second()->and(10)->milliseconds();

Testing Sleep

When testing code that utilizes the Sleep class or PHP's native sleep functions, your test will pause execution. As you might expect, this makes your test suite significantly slower. For example, imagine you are testing the following code:

$waiting = /* ... */;
 
$seconds = 1;
 
while ($waiting) {
Sleep::for($seconds++)->seconds();
 
$waiting = /* ... */;
}

Typically, testing this code would take at least one second. Luckily, the Sleep class allows us to "fake" sleeping so that our test suite stays fast:

public function test_it_waits_until_ready()
{
Sleep::fake();
 
// ...
}

When faking the Sleep class, the actual execution pause is by-passed, leading to a substantially faster test.

Once the Sleep class has been faked, it is possible to make assertions against the expected "sleeps" that should have occurred. To illustrate this, let's imagine we are testing code that pauses execution three times, with each pause increasing by a single second. Using the assertSequence method, we can assert that our code "slept" for the proper amount of time while keeping our test fast:

public function test_it_checks_if_ready_four_times()
{
Sleep::fake();
 
// ...
 
Sleep::assertSequence([
Sleep::for(1)->second(),
Sleep::for(2)->seconds(),
Sleep::for(3)->seconds(),
]);
}

Of course, the Sleep class offers a variety of other assertions you may use when testing:

use Carbon\CarbonInterval as Duration;
use Illuminate\Support\Sleep;
 
// Assert that sleep was called 3 times...
Sleep::assertSleptTimes(3);
 
// Assert against the duration of sleep...
Sleep::assertSlept(function (Duration $duration): bool {
return /* ... */;
}, times: 1);
 
// Assert that the Sleep class was never invoked...
Sleep::assertNeverSlept();
 
// Assert that, even if Sleep was called, no execution paused occurred...
Sleep::assertInsomniac();

Sometimes it may be useful to perform an action whenever a fake sleep occurs in your application code. To achieve this, you may provide a callback to the whenFakingSleep method. In the following example, we use Laravel's time manipulation helpers to instantly progress time by the duration of each sleep:

use Carbon\CarbonInterval as Duration;
 
$this->freezeTime();
 
Sleep::fake();
 
Sleep::whenFakingSleep(function (Duration $duration) {
// Progress time when faking sleep...
$this->travel($duration->totalMilliseconds)->milliseconds();
});

Laravel uses the Sleep class internally whenever it is pausing execution. For example, the retry helper uses the Sleep class when sleeping, allowing for improved testability when using that helper.