HTTP Responses

Basic Responses

Of course, all routes and controllers should return some kind of response to be sent back to the user's browser. Laravel provides several different ways to return responses. The most basic response is simply returning a string from a route or controller:

Route::get('/', function () {
    return 'Hello World';

The given string will automatically be converted into an HTTP response by the framework.

However, for most routes and controller actions, you will be returning a full Illuminate\Http\Response instance or a view. Returning a full Response instance allows you to customize the response's HTTP status code and headers. A Response instance inherits from the Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response class, providing a variety of methods for building HTTP responses:

use Illuminate\Http\Response;

Route::get('home', function () {
    return (new Response($content, $status))
                  ->header('Content-Type', $value);

For convenience, you may also use the response helper:

Route::get('home', function () {
    return response($content, $status)
                  ->header('Content-Type', $value);

Note: For a full list of available Response methods, check out its API documentation and the Symfony API documentation.

Attaching Headers To Responses

Keep in mind that most response methods are chainable, allowing for the fluent building of responses. For example, you may use the header method to add a series of headers to the response before sending it back to the user:

return response($content)
            ->header('Content-Type', $type)
            ->header('X-Header-One', 'Header Value')
            ->header('X-Header-Two', 'Header Value');

Attaching Cookies To Responses

The withCookie helper method on the response instance allows you to easily attach cookies to the response. For example, you may use the withCookie method to generate a cookie and attach it to the response instance:

return response($content)->header('Content-Type', $type)
                 ->withCookie('name', 'value');

The withCookie method accepts additional optional arguments which allow you to further customize your cookie's properties:

->withCookie($name, $value, $minutes, $path, $domain, $secure, $httpOnly)

By default, all cookies generated by Laravel are encrypted and signed so that they can't be modified or read by the client. If you would like to disable encryption for a certain subset of cookies generated by your application, you may use the $except property of the App\Http\Middleware\EncryptCookies middleware:

 * The names of the cookies that should not be encrypted.
 * @var array
protected $except = [

Other Response Types

The response helper may be used to conveniently generate other types of response instances. When the response helper is called without arguments, an implementation of the Illuminate\Contracts\Routing\ResponseFactory contract is returned. This contract provides several helpful methods for generating responses.

View Responses

If you need control over the response status and headers, but also need to return a view as the response content, you may use the view method:

return response()->view('hello', $data)->header('Content-Type', $type);

Of course, if you do not need to pass a custom HTTP status code or custom headers, you may simply use the global view helper function.

JSON Responses

The json method will automatically set the Content-Type header to application/json, as well as convert the given array into JSON using the json_encode PHP function:

return response()->json(['name' => 'Abigail', 'state' => 'CA']);

If you would like to create a JSONP response, you may use the json method in addition to setCallback:

return response()->json(['name' => 'Abigail', 'state' => 'CA'])

File Downloads

The download method may be used to generate a response that forces the user's browser to download the file at the given path. The download method accepts a file name as the second argument to the method, which will determine the file name that is seen by the user downloading the file. Finally, you may pass an array of HTTP headers as the third argument to the method:

return response()->download($pathToFile);

return response()->download($pathToFile, $name, $headers);

Note: Symfony HttpFoundation, which manages file downloads, requires the file being downloaded to have an ASCII file name.


Redirect responses are instances of the Illuminate\Http\RedirectResponse class, and contain the proper headers needed to redirect the user to another URL. There are several ways to generate a RedirectResponse instance. The simplest method is to use the global redirect helper method:

Route::get('dashboard', function () {
    return redirect('home/dashboard');

Sometimes you may wish to redirect the user to their previous location, for example, after a form submission that is invalid. You may do so by using the global back helper function:

Route::post('user/profile', function () {
    // Validate the request...

    return back()->withInput();

Redirecting To Named Routes

When you call the redirect helper with no parameters, an instance of Illuminate\Routing\Redirector is returned, allowing you to call any method on the Redirector instance. For example, to generate a RedirectResponse to a named route, you may use the route method:

return redirect()->route('login');

If your route has parameters, you may pass them as the second argument to the route method:

// For a route with the following URI: profile/{id}

return redirect()->route('profile', [1]);

If you are redirecting to a route with an "ID" parameter that is being populated from an Eloquent model, you may simply pass the model itself. The ID will be extracted automatically:

return redirect()->route('profile', [$user]);

Redirecting To Controller Actions

You may also generate redirects to controller actions. To do so, simply pass the controller and action name to the action method. Remember, you do not need to specify the full namespace to the controller since Laravel's RouteServiceProvider will automatically set the default controller namespace:

return redirect()->action('HomeController@index');

Of course, if your controller route requires parameters, you may pass them as the second argument to the action method:

return redirect()->action('UserController@profile', [1]);

Redirecting With Flashed Session Data

Redirecting to a new URL and flashing data to the session are typically done at the same time. So, for convenience, you may create a RedirectResponse instance and flash data to the session in a single method chain. This is particularly convenient for storing status messages after an action:

Route::post('user/profile', function () {
    // Update the user's profile...

    return redirect('dashboard')->with('status', 'Profile updated!');

Of course, after the user is redirected to a new page, you may retrieve and display the flashed message from the session. For example, using Blade syntax:

@if (session('status'))
    <div class="alert alert-success">
        {{ session('status') }}

Response Macros

If you would like to define a custom response that you can re-use in a variety of your routes and controllers, you may use the macro method on an implementation of Illuminate\Contracts\Routing\ResponseFactory.

For example, from a service provider's boot method:


namespace App\Providers;

use Illuminate\Support\ServiceProvider;
use Illuminate\Contracts\Routing\ResponseFactory;

class ResponseMacroServiceProvider extends ServiceProvider
     * Perform post-registration booting of services.
     * @param  ResponseFactory  $factory
     * @return void
    public function boot(ResponseFactory $factory)
        $factory->macro('caps', function ($value) use ($factory) {
            return $factory->make(strtoupper($value));

The macro function accepts a name as its first argument, and a Closure as its second. The macro's Closure will be executed when calling the macro name from a ResponseFactory implementation or the response helper:

return response()->caps('foo');